FCE Reading Part 2

Read the text below and decide which sentences best fill each numbered gap. You have 20 minutes.



The Low Emissions Diet


We were sold the idea that modern farming techniques, such as agrochemicals, genetic engineering and factory farming, would end hunger in the world. ......... 1 ......... That’s more than 14% of the planet’s population and the figure is rising. At the same time, we now produce every year enough food to feed 12 billion, which is double the world’s current population. We have been told a terrible lie and the truth is that modern farming is all about the unsustainable use of limited resources for just one reason. That reason is profit. What's more, the consequences of modern farming techniques on human health and on the environment are serious.


......... 2 ......... The world produces 70 million tonnes of beef a year and people in Britain now eat 50% more meat than they did in the 1960s, which is just about double the daily intake recommended by The World Health Organisation. Middle-aged men who eat meat have a 300% greater risk of heart disease than those who don’t. Furthermore, the World Cancer Research Fund recently announced that red meat causes intestinal cancers. ......... 3 .........


According to The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation, the production of red meat releases 18% of all the world’s greenhouse gas emissions, more than for any other type of food. We are talking about 14% of global methane emissions and a carbon footprint of 16 tonnes of CO2 per tonne of beef and lamb. Factory farming concentrates enormous numbers of animals in a small space. This has resulted in the outbreak of serious global diseases or pandemics such as Mad Cow Disease. This year saw the outbreak of swine flu at a Smithfield Meats factory farm in Perote, Mexico. ......... 4 .........


Another consequence of concentrating animals in a small area is the need to grow feed crops. ......... 5 ......... Pesticides and fertilizers enter into the food chain along with sedatives, growth hormones and antibiotics which are used on the animals. As a result, animal waste sends phosphates, nitrates, ammonia and copper into surrounding water systems, killing fish populations and threatening public health. ......... 6 ......... The U.S. Department of Agriculture says nearly half of America’s water supply and 80% of its agricultural land is used to grow animal feed. This feed then typically travels large distances to reach the animals, massively increasing carbon footprints for food.


So, what can we do to reduce the environmental impact of what we eat? Use consumer power to lower your carbon footprint and improve your health at the same time. Cut down on red meat and cut out processed meat. ......... 7 ......... Apply the same principal to dairy products. If you don’t live in the tropics, don’t buy tropical fruit. Buy in season from your region. President Obama and his family follow the ideas of Michael Pollan. ......... 8 ......... This means checking ingredients. Real bread contains flour, salt, yeast and water and nothing else. Food additives are all about increasing profit. Also, try to eat at the lower end of the food chain. Following these guidelines will reduce your personal carbon footprint by 20%, which isn't bad at all.